Books: The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori

The Montessori Method by Maria Montessori

If you want to learn a subject, there’s nothing like hearing it straight from the horse’s mouth. Read about The Montessori Method translated from the original manuscript written by Maria Montessori herself.

What’s in it…

CHAPTER I- A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION OF THE NEW PEDAGOGY IN ITS RELATION TO MODERN SCIENCE

  • Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy 1
  • Italy’s part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy 4
  • Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit 7
  • Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism 9
  • The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life 12
  • Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example 13
  • The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born 15
  • Stationary desks and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school 16
  • Conquest of liberty, what the school needs 19
  • What may happen to the spirit 20
  • Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul 21
  • All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force 24

CHAPTER II – HISTORY OF METHODS

  • Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy 28
  • Origin of educational system in use in the “Children’s Houses” 31
  • Practical application of the methods of Itard and Séguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome 32
  • Origin of the methods for the education of deficients 33
  • Application of the methods in Germany and France 35
  • Séguin’s first didactic material was spiritual 37
  • Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children 42
  • Social and pedagogical importance of the “Children’s Houses” 44

CHAPTER III – INAUGURAL ADDRESS DELIVERED ON THE OCCASION O F THE OPENING OF ONE OF THE “CHILDREN’S HOUSES”

  • The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the “Children’s Houses” 48
  • Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury 60
  • The problem of life more profound than that of the Intellectual elevation of the poor 52
  • Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past centuries 53
  • Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms 56
  • The “Children’s House” earned by the parents through their care of the building 60
  • Pedagogical organization of the “Children’s House” 62
  • The “Children’s House” the first step toward the socialization of the house 65
  • The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women 66
  • Rules and regulations of the “Children’s Houses” 70

CHAPTER IV – PEDAGOGICAL METHODS USED IN THE “CHILDREN’S HOUSES”

  • Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation 72
  • Anthropological consideration 73
  • Anthropological notes 77
  • Environment and schoolroom furnishings 80

CHAPTER V – DISCIPLINE

  • Discipline through liberty 86
  • Independence 95
  • Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment 101
  • Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy 104

CHAPTER VI – HOW THE LESSON SHOULD BE GIVEN

  • Characteristics of the individual lessons 107
  • Method of observation the fundamental guide 108
  • Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated 109
  • First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop 115

CHAPTER VII – EXERCISES OF PRACTICAL LIFE

  • Suggested schedule for the “Children’s Houses” 119
  • The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms 121
  • Cleanlinss, order, poise, conversation 122

CHAPTER VIII – REFECTION–THE CHILD’S DIET

  • Diet must be adapted to the child’s physical nature 125
  • Foods and their preparation 126
  • Drinks 132
  • Distribution of meals 133

CHAPTER IX – MUSCULAR EDUCATION–GYMNASTICS

  • Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate 137
  • The special gymnastics necessary for little children 138
  • Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus 141
  • Free gymnastics 144
  • Educational gymnastics 144
  • Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, and lingual gymnastics 147

CHAPTER X – NATURE IN EDUCATION–AGRICULTURAL LABOUR; CULTURE OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS

  • The savage of the Aveyron 149
  • Itard’s educative drama repeated in the education of little children 153
  • Gardening and horticulture basis of a method for education of children 155
  • The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education 156
  • Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature 159
  • The child follows the natural way of development of the human race 160

CHAPTER XI – MANUAL LABOUR–THE POTTER’S ART, AND BUILDING

  • Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics 162
  • The School of Educative Art 163
  • Archæological, historical, and artistic importance of the vase 164
  • Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses 165

CHAPTER XII – EDUCATION OF THE SENSES

  • Aim of education to develop the energies 168
  • Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didactic material made up of graded stimuli 169
  • Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises 173
  • Three periods of Séguin 177

CHAPTER XIII – EDUCATION OF THE SENSES AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIDACTIC MATERIAL: GENERAL SENSIBILITY: THE TACTILE, THERMIC, BARIC AND STEREOGNOSTIC SENSES

  • Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses 185
  • Education of the stereognostic sense 188
  • Education of the senses of taste and smell 190
  • Education of the sense of vision 191
  • Exercises with the three series of cards 199
  • Education of the chromatic sense 200
  • Exercise for the discrimination of sounds 203
  • Musical education 206
  • Tests for acuteness of hearing 209
  • A lesson in silence 212

CHAPTER XIV – GENERAL NOTES ON THE EDUCATION OF THE SENSES

  • Aim in education biological and social 215
  • Education of the senses makes men observers and prepares them directly for practical life 218

CHAPTER XV – INTELLECTUAL EDUCATION

  • Sense exercises a species of auto-education 224
  • Importance of an exact nomenclature, and how to teach it 225
  • Spontaneous progress of the child the greatest triumph of Scientific Pedagogy 228
  • Games of the blind 231
  • Application of the visual sense to the observation of environment 232
  • Method of using didactic material: dimensions, form, design 233
  • Free plastic work 241
  • Geometric analysis of figures 243
  • Exercises in the chromatic sense 244

CHAPTER XVI – METHOD FOR THE TEACHING OF READING AND WRITING

  • Spontaneous development of graphic language: Séguin and Itard 246
  • Necessity of a special education that shall fit man for objective observation and direct logical thought 252
  • Results of objective observation and logical thought 253
  • Not necessary to begin teaching writing with vertical strokes 257
  • Spontaneous drawing of normal children 258
  • Use of Froebel mats in teaching children sewing 260
  • Children should be taught how before they are made to execute a task 261
  • Two diverse forms of movement made in writing 262
  • Experiments made with normal children 267
  • Origin of alphabets in present use 269

CHAPTER XVII – DESCRIPTION OF THE METHOD AND DIDACTIC MATERIAL USED

  • Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing 271
  • Didactic material for writing 271
  • Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular imageof the alphabetic signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing 275
  • Exercises for the composition of words 281
  • Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs 296
  • Games for the reading of words 299
  • Games for the reading of phrases 303
  • Point education has reached in the “Children’s Houses” 307

CHAPTER XVIII – LANGUAGE IN CHILDHOOD

  • Physiological importance of graphic language 310
  • Two periods in the development of language 312
  • Analysis of speech necessary 319
  • Defects of language due to education 322

CHAPTER XIX – TEACHING OF NUMERATION: INTRODUCTION TO ARITHMETIC

  • Numbers as represented by graphic signs 328
  • Exercises for the memory of numbers 330
  • Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division 332
  • Lessons on decimals: arithmetic calculations beyond ten 335

CHAPTER XX – SEQUENCE OF EXERCISES

  • Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises 338
  • First grade 338
  • Second grade 339
  • Third grade 342
  • Fourth grade 343
  • Fifth grade 345

CHAPTER XXI – GENERAL REVIEW OF DISCIPLINE

  • Discipline better than in ordinary schools 346
  • First dawning of discipline comes through work 350
  • Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action 354
  • The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea 358
  • Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment 360
  • Obedience is naturally sacrifice 363
  • Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey 367

CHAPTER XXII – CONCLUSIONS AND IMPRESSIONS

  • The teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the “Children’s Houses” 371
  • The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy 372
  • Spiritual influence of the “Children’s Houses” 376

Read it online for free.