Stress management may once have sounded like a course that was relevant only to adults, but the hectic and rapid lifestyle of the 21st Century has seen rising levels of stress in children and adults alike. If we want our children to lead healthy, happy and successful lives, we must teach them to learn how to manage their stress. Here’s why:
Good Stress vs Bad Stress
Before we talk about the negative impact of stress, we need to acknowledge that not all stress is bad. Up to a certain level, when managed effectively, stress can lead to enhanced performance. We call this “good stress”. Once the stress levels exceed our ability to cope (past the point of fatigue in the graph below), it can lead to decreased performance, exhaustion, illness and eventual breakdown. We call this “bad stress”.
When we teach our children good stress management skills, we achieve two things:
- We extend their fatigue point so that they can continue to perform optimally for longer.
- We enhance their peak performance.
So what happens when our children can’t cope with the stress?
Bad Stress Affects Learning
When children are overwhelmed by stress, they struggle to learn. This is because stress inhibits the brain’s ability to learn by:
- Preventing the formation of long-term memories. Over time, prolonged stress can lead to shrinkage of the hippocampus, a part of the brain that is responsible for memory formation.
- Sabotaging the pathways in the prefrontal cortex which is the part of the brain that is responsible for carrying out the executive functions. The executive functions, which include judgment, planning, self-control, reasoning, working memory and decision making, are essential for successful learning.
Bad Stress Affects Performance
A simple example of how stress affects performance can be seen when our minds “go blank” during a test. We struggle to recall the answers to the questions only to remember them after the test is over. This is because stress inhibits working memory and memory retrieval.
Chronic Stress and Depression
Sustained or chronic stress, in particular, leads to elevated hormones such as cortisol, the “stress hormone,” and reduced serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine, which has been linked to depression. – WebMD
Stress that is experienced over a prolonged period of time can lead to depression in individuals who are susceptible. This stress-depression relationship can lead to a negative downward spiral fueling further stress and greater depression.
Chronic Stress Kills
Stress causes deterioration in everything from your gums to your heart and can make you more susceptible to illnesses ranging from the common cold to cancer. – Live Science
At the very worst end of the spectrum, stress degrades health, eventually leading to death. If that’s not a good reason to start teaching our children good stress management skills, I don’t know what is.
Typical Causes of Stress
What are the causes of stress in a child’s life? The following are some examples cited by John Hopkins:
- disrupted homes, blended families, both parents working outside the home
- increased exposure to violence, both real and on the screen
- excessive screen time
- being over scheduled
- feeling pressured to perform or behave beyond their ability
- failing an exam
- physical appearance
- judgment or evaluation by others
- unrealistic classroom demands
- the future
- problems with peers
- problems with a boyfriend or girlfriend
- any situation that threatens self-esteem
- disagreements with teachers, parents or other adults
Stress Management – Prevention
The following are great ways to help children manage their stress:
- Encourage children to stay active in sports and exercise because these activities release endorphins which make us feel good.
- Teach them to practice mindfulness meditation which is a form of mental relaxation for the mind. Yoga is another great activity for relieving stress.
- Make sure they get enough time in with friends and family because warm, social connections provide a buffer against the negative effects of stress.
- Get them back to nature because nature increases our resistance to stress and depression.
- Make sure they get enough sleep because a lack of sleep can increase our feelings of stress. Like stress and depression, stress and sleep are also inter-related. When we feel stressed, we may find it harder to sleep, when we don’t get enough sleep, we feel more stressed. The quality of sleep is also important. One study shows deep sleep can decrease anxiety overnight by reorganising connections in the brain.
- Help them take time out for themselves to recuperate from the hustle and bustle of daily life.
Stress Management – Coping Skills
The following posters are great for working with younger kids:
Image Source: Childhood101
“Take 5” Calming Steps © Victoria Tennant Consulting
You can teach your child to “Take 5” Calming Steps which has been explained in great detail on the John Hopkins School of Education website:
Step 1: I notice how I feel.
- Body signals might be tight muscles, shallow breathing, fast breathing, hot face, pounding heart, sweaty hands, stomach or head ache, fuzzy brain.
- Emotions might be nervous, anxious, scared, upset, frustrated, mad.
Step 2: I accept myself.
- Say out loud: “Even though I….. I am…..”
- Even though I feel angry, I am a good kid.
- Even though I feel frustrated, I am an awesome kid.
- Even though I feel nervous, I am a smart person.
- Option: Say the statement 3 times while tapping the Karate Chop point.
Step 3: I calm myself.
- Choose something from your calming menu:
- Take deep breaths.
- Tense and relax your muscles.
- Imagine something positive.
- Do a Brain Gym movement.
Step 4: I notice how I feel now.
- Body signals might be loose muscles, slower & deeper breathing, cool face, quiet heart, dry hands, no more stomach or head ache, clear brain.
- Emotions might be relaxed, calm, peaceful, quiet, happy.
If you’re still stressed, repeat Step 3.
Step 5: I tell myself something positive.
- “I am relaxed and do my best.”
- “I am calm and remember what I learn.”
- “I am calm and make good decisions.”
Stress Management – Breathing Exercises
Breathing exercises can also be an effective way to help you manage stress because it helps to trigger the body’s relaxation response. Deep breathing sends a message to your brain to calm down and relax. It helps to reverse your body’s response stress, such as an increased heart rate, faster breathing, and high blood pressure.
Learn more about Breathing Techniques: A Guide to the Science and Methods.
You can also try the following strategies: